The abbreviation ESD is derived from the English and stands for "electrostatic discharge". These are voltage breakdowns that occur due to high potential differences. Consequently, there is a short, high current flow.
Undesirable is such a discharge in electrical components, because they are damaged by this. Often the charging of such components finds its cause in occurring frictional electricity. Due to their low strength, many electrostatic discharges cannot even be perceived by humans. Nevertheless, they are sufficient to damage electronic components. In the worst case, these are destroyed or the service life of the parts is considerably shortened.
Both during the production and processing of electrostatically sensitive components, as well as during their transport, it must therefore be ensured that no unwanted discharge occurs.
Special antistatic packaging has been designed to protect against this. These are produced from electrically conductive materials in order to discharge any charges that arise from the packaging surface. Mostly it concerns thereby conductively equipped plastic packing. Here, a conductivity of films, filling materials and foams can be produced, for example, by fillers or a metal vapor deposition.
The specific provisions on ESD-compatible packaging can be found in DIN EN 61340-5-3, where the standardization includes the properties and requirements for the classification of packaging used for ESD-sensitive components. The purpose is to avoid charging and discharging too quickly. Therefore, ESD packaging is divided into "conductive" (C), "dissipative" (D) and "shielding" (S). In addition, the protection factor of ESD packaging is classified as low, medium and high.
ESD packaging of category C is conductive. This means that the frictional electricity that occurs is dissipated by the package contents.
ESD packaging of category D has a dissipative effect. In this case, the frictional electricity is already dissipated from the surface of the packaging.
ESD packaging of category S have a shielding function and thus offer the highest protection against electrostatic discharges. A special coating creates a barrier that slows down the passage of current and thus greatly dampens electrostatic discharge. With completely closed packaging, these act like a Faraday cage.
Basically, all electrical, electronic and optoelectronic components are electrostatically sensitive components that must be protected against electrostatic discharge in order to ensure their functionality in the long term and to minimize failure rates. Electromechanical components are also sensitive to electrostatic discharge. Despite the seemingly small amount of charge, high electrical power and high power densities occur, especially in small components, which destroy the components. In the case of semiconductors, discharges lead to material changes and functional disturbances, the load capacity of the components is exceeded - they "burn out".
Conventional ESD packaging made of plastic is practicable, but it damages the environment and thus does not contribute to nature conservation. ESD packaging made from recyclable materials such as cardboard or corrugated cardboard thus offers an environmentally friendly alternative. Cardboard packaging can also have an antistatic effect thanks to special coatings and thus serve as effective protection against electrostatic discharges just like packaging made of plastic. Due to their stability, ESD cardboard packaging can also be reused as reusable packaging for ESD protection.
The company Froeb-Verpackungen GmbH has been focusing for years on the development of alternative packaging and storage materials made of paper and cardboard, which can also be produced at a lower price and offer other advantages in addition to environmental protection. They are lighter and in some cases even more stable.
Electrical, electronic and optoelectronic components can have a wide variety of shapes and are produced in a wide variety of designs. Using variable or universal ESD packaging (consisting of a dissipative protective film and foam inserts) eliminates the need to order different ESD packaging when, for example, bulky PCBs need to be packed or stored quickly, safely and in a space-saving manner. It is a plug-in system which can be adapted to any size of printed circuit board by means of a holding device. Thus, a wide variety of components can be packed antistatically and dimensionally stable with one type of packaging.
The word meander finds its conceptual origin first as a designation for the natural course of rivers or streams that run through flat areas in the form of loops or loops. Later, the term was extended to other areas where narrow, recurring loops or loops are found.
This is also the case with ESD meander packaging. Here, dissipative films are placed in loops and glued to an ESD cardboard box. This creates gaps in which narrow, elongated or rod-shaped printed circuit boards, LED circuit boards or LED strips, and other electronic assemblies can be packed quickly and easily. For very small components, additional compartments can be inserted in the packaging so that many electronic components can be accommodated in one carton. In addition, these are protected against electrostatic discharges by using dissipative protective films and ESD cardboard packaging.
Packaging with compartments, which are produced from solid board, are convincing in the areas of environmental protection and production costs. They are produced from recycled material with the addition of virgin fibers and are therefore environmentally friendly and conserve resources. They can be returned to the recycling loop at 100% and a major advantage is that they take up little space when folded, which is particularly noticeable when larger quantities are purchased. In addition, in contrast to compartments made of corrugated cardboard, they are less dusty and therefore more suitable for electronic applications. They are preferably suitable for smaller compartments, as stability decreases with increasing size. No tooling is required for the production of solid board compartments, which means that no additional tooling costs are incurred even in the case of subsequent adaptations, and production costs can thus be kept low. The raw material is also cheaper than corrugated board or plastic.
In addition to solid board, corrugated board is also used in the production of ESD packaging. These are also made from recycled material with the addition of virgin fibers and are therefore also environmentally friendly and resource-saving. They can be 100% recycled. Corrugated board is also well suited for use in larger packaging, as it is more stable than solid board. However, one disadvantage is that corrugated cardboard leads to greater dust pollution. Corrugated board trays can also be produced without tools. However, productivity can be increased for larger purchase quantities by using a die-cutting tool.
The advantages of plastic ESD packaging are clearly in the areas of stability and weather resistance. Even large packaging can be produced without compromising stability. Due to the weather resistance, the packaging can also be used several times without any problems and can even be described as resource-saving under the aspect of reusability. Unlike cardboard, ESD packaging made of plastic does not generate dust and is therefore very suitable for the electronic sector. However, the starting material is more expensive than solid or corrugated board and the productivity for die-cutting is lower, so a die is usually always required for production. ESD packaging made of plastic is difficult to recycle and therefore not very environmentally friendly.
Plastic trays, which are made of solid material, are also used in the electrical industry. Antistatic solid plastic trays are particularly suitable for packaging, storing and safely shipping electronic components such as printed circuit boards, LED's, etc. Because they are dust-free and weather-resistant, they can also be used in cleanrooms. The all-plastic compartments are easy to reuse and can save resources when used frequently, thus contributing to environmental protection, as they are otherwise difficult to recycle. The base material is more expensive than cardboard and a mold is also required for production..
ESD packaging paper is a specially coated paper that acquires antistatic properties. As a result, it can be used as a universal packaging material in the electrical and electronic industry, because it reliably protects sensitive components from electrostatic discharges. The packaging paper can be used as an intermediate layer in ESD cardboard boxes and standard transport containers, as a base in warehouse logistics, as tamping and crimping paper in ESD cardboard boxes or directly as an environmentally friendly packaging material for electrical components.
To additionally protect electrical and electronic components and assemblies from physical influences such as impact and vibration, an antistatic cushioning paper can be used. Due to the special embossing of the paper, it has a much higher cushioning effect than conventional wrapping paper. This also significantly reduces the material consumption of the packing paper. It can serve as an environmentally friendly alternative for ESD bags and bubble wrap. Paper packaging materials are classified as ecologically beneficial and thus meet the requirements of the Packaging Act.
Since 1912 Froeb-Verpackungen GmbH has been developing and producing packaging for the storage and shipping of products. The focus of the work is to find environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional packaging and storage materials. Waste paper therefore plays an essential role in the production of standard cardboard boxes, but also in the production of individual product packaging.